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2011-Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit
|Flogen Star OUTREACH
|2291-1227 (Metals and Materials Processing in a Clean Environment Series)
In the present paper, the technologies to control inclusions are reviewed in particular focusing on the recent progress. In stainless steels, spinel inclusions are recognized to be harmful not only for practices, sometimes causing nozzle clogging at a continuous caster, but also for product in which defects occasionally appear. The ways how spinel inclusions can be prevented are shown from the view points of thermodynamics and kinetics. Higher cleanliness is required for some electronic devices. Effects of inclusion state on some properties necessary for these alloys are explained showing the examples of Fe-42%Ni alloy for lead frames and Fe-80%Ni-5%Mo alloy for soft magnetic materials. Further, it is demonstrated that corrosion is sometimes initiated around inclusions on strip surface. In addition, positive application of inclusions to improve mechanical property of some steels is shown. Lastly, difficulties in evaluation of cleanliness are mentioned due to achievement of higher cleanliness brought by the recent progress in refining technologies.